European projects successes

European projects managed by INRA Transfert in 2017

 

  • AgriLink Open or Close

    AgriLink: Agricultural Knowledge: Linking farmers, advisors and researchers to boost innovation

    Objectives


    Projet H2020-RUR14 (2017-2021)

    AgriLink aims to stimulate sustainability transitions in European agriculture through better understanding the roles played by farm advice in farmer decision-making.

    To this end, AgriLink will analyse and improve the role of farmer advice in 8 innovation areas that combine challenges identified in the Strategic Approach to EU Agricultural Research & Innovation. AgriLink builds on the premise that the full range of advice-providing organisations need to be included in the assessment of service provision and innovation adoption.

    The methodology combines theoretical insights with cutting edge research methods within a multi-actor, transdisciplinary approach. It draws on ‘micro-AKIS’ (individuals and organisations from whom farmers seek services and exchange knowledge with) analysis in 24 focus regions, sociotechnical scenario development and ‘living laboratories’ where farmers, advisors and researchers work together. Research in focus regions will provide insight in farmers’ micro-AKIS, advisory suppliers’ business models, and regional farm advisory systems. This will feed an assessment of the efficacy of governance of farm-advice-research interactions across Europe. Newly developed advisory methods and new forms of research-practice interaction will be validated and further developed in living laboratories. A socio-technical scenario method will be used to explore, jointly with stakeholders, transition pathways towards more sustainable agriculture.

    Crucially, AgriLink builds on insights and experiences from both research and practice. The consortium consists of researchers from different disciplines (institutional economics, innovation studies, AKIS studies, sociology of networks), as well as of advisors (from public, private and farmer-based organisations) from across the EU. Actors from advisory services and AKIS will be active in the validation and dissemination of results, to ensure that all project findings are both scientifically sound and practically useful.

     

    EC funding : 4 999 966,49 €
    Duration : 4 ans
    Start : June 1st 2017
    Coordinateur : Pierre Labarthe (INRA SAD, Toulouse), pierre.labarthe@inra.fr
    Project manager : Luke Lauprete luke.lauprete@inra.fr

    Website : www.agrilink2020.eu

  • AnaEE Open or Close

    AnaEE (Preparatory Phase):

    Infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems

    Objectives


    AnaEE is a Research Infrastructure, registered on the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI 2010) roadmap. The AnaEE Preparatory Phase was initiated in November 2012 until October 2016, followed by the AnaEE Pre-Operational Phase from October 2016 to June 2018.

    ANAEE will provide Europe with a distributed and coordinated set of experimental, analytical and modelling platforms to analyse and predict in a precise manner the response of the main continental ecosystems to environmental and land use changes.ANAEE will consist of highly equipped in natura and in vitro experimental platforms associated with sophisticated analytical and modelling platforms coupled to networks of instrumented observation and monitoring sites throughout Europe.

    INRA Transfert was in charge of the AnaEE preparatory phase project management, with a consortium of 19 partners from 13 different countries.

    INRA Transfert is now in charge of the AnaEE pre-operational phase project management, aiming to build a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). This new phase is composed of 5 members (Belgium, Denmark, Israel, France and Czech Republic).

    European Commission funding : 3 400 000 € (Budget 4 787 692 €)
    Duration : 3,5 years
    Start : November 1st 2012
    Coordinator : Abad CHABBI (INRA Grignon) - abad.chabbi@inra.fr
    Projet manager : Agathe RENARD (INRA Transfert) - agathe.renard@inra.fr
    Website : www.anaee.com

  • Aquaexcel2020 Open or Close

    logoAE2020

    Aquaexcel2020: AQUAculture infrastructures for EXCELlence in European fish research towards 2020

    Objectives


    AQUAEXCEL2020 is a research infrastructure project funded under the EU’s Horizon 2020 programme and coordinated by the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA). The project, which has started in October 2015, aims to further support the sustainable growth of the European aquaculture sector. AQUAEXCEL2020 will integrate a large group of leading European aquaculture research facilities and aims to advance aquaculture research and innovation in Europe. One of its key aspects will be to provide subsidised access to top-class aquaculture facilities, as well as numerous highly pertinent services for researchers from academia and industry.

    Aquaculture provides about half of the fish for human consumption worldwide. The demand for fish is rising, but fisheries are not expected to grow due to fully or over-exploited fish stocks. Aquaculture production seeks to meet this increasing demand for fish, but while the aquaculture sector is growing in the rest of the world, it has stagnated in Europe in recent years. Sustainable growth of the aquaculture sector in Europe, based on efficient and environmentally responsible production of high value fish products, can be achieved by ensuring excellent scientific research and by the results being translated into innovation and industrial growth.

    AQUAEXCEL2020 will help to achieve this target by integrating 39 top class European aquaculture research facilities that cover all relevant scientific fields, fish species and systems. The project will provide a single access portal to high-quality, harmonised services and resources tailored to the needs of the European aquaculture community, support and conduct world-class research and provide the basis for a European aquaculture innovation system from basic research to applied science.

    European Commission funding : 9 708 861,78 €
    Duration : 4 years
    Start : October 1st 2015
    Coordinator : Dr Marc Vandeputte (INRA Jouy en Josas) - marc.vandeputte@inra.fr
    Project manager : Bénédicte Ferreira (INRA Transfert) - benedicte.ferreira@inra.fr
    Website : www.aquaexcel2020.eu

  • ARRAINA Open or Close

     arrainaARRAINA:

    Advanced Research Initiative for Aquaculture and Nutrition

    Objectives


    ARRAINA will ensure the development of tools (pertinent biomarkers) required to measure and predict the effects of alternative feeds on fish metabolism and health, and define nutritional requirements for the 5 main European farmed fish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bream (Sparus aurata), seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The project will use these tools to develop alternative feeds and novel vectors for early life stages of fish development that have not been sufficiently addressed yet, and study the long-term effects of these alternative feeds on metabolism, performance, quality and waste management over the full life-cycle (egg to broodstock). ARRAINA will also validate this concept of nutritional programming in fish.

    By jointly involving researchers and the key stakeholders in the aquaculture industry in Europe (feed producers, actors of the food supply chain, farmers, consumers and policy makers) in the design and assessment of these alternative feeds, ARRAINA will facilitate the rapid and widespread adoption and implementation of these innovative sustainable feeds. ARRAINA will thereby contribute to the development of feeds tailored to the nutritional requirements of European fish species and to improve the competiveness, employment, health and environment of the EU and candidate countries.

    The overall objectives of this project are to :

    • develop sustainable alternative aquaculture feeds tailored to the nutritional requirements of European farmed fish species, over their respective full life cycles, with reduced levels of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) and
    • assess the long term physiological consequences by applying targeted predictive tools applicable to multiple species of European farmed fish. It will therefore provide flexibility in the use of various ingredients in the formulation of feeds which are cost-efficient, environmentally friendly and that ensure production of seafood of high nutritional value and quality.


    EC funding : 6 000 000€ (Budget 8 000 000€)
    Duration : 5 years
    Start : January 1st 2012
    Coordinator : Sadasivam Kaushik (INRA Bordeaux) - kaushik@st-pee.inra.fr
    Project manager : Parisa Louise DARZI - parisa-louise.darzi@inra.fr
    Website : http://www.arraina.eu/

  • DiverIMPACTS Open or Close

    DiverIMPACTS

     

    Diversification through Rotation, Intercropping, Multiple Cropping, Promoted by Actors and Value Chains towards Sustainability

    The overall goal of DiverIMPACTS is to realise the full potential of diversification of cropping systems for improved productivity, delivery of ecosystem services and resource-efficient and sustainable value chains by: i) assessing performances of crop diversification through rotation, intercropping and multiple cropping; ii) providing rural areas actors with those key enablers and innovations that would remove existing barriers and ensure actual uptake of benefits of crop diversification at farm, value chain and territory levels; iii) make recommendations to policy-makers to facilitate the coordination of all relevant actors within the value chain. DiverIMPACTS will build on existing experiences of crop diversification by networking and expanding 10 existing field experiments to quantify impacts of crop diversification and by accompanying 25 multi-actor case studies in their dynamic transition. DiverIMPACTS will propose a range of technical and organisational innovations to remove lock-ins from farmers to consumers as well as strategies and recommendations to sustain crop diversification.

    The consortium includes a wide range of actors (farmers and farmers’ organisations, advisory services, cooperatives, logistic providers, scientists, industry, representatives of civil society and of rural areas). DiverIMPACTS will, through a multi-actor approach, accompany and support innovation groups in their dynamic process to develop sustainable value chain systems characterised by a high level of crop diversification and new market products. The consortium involves pioneer actors of crop diversification and has great experience in both the design and multi-criteria assessment of innovative systems and the analysis of barriers that may lock-in the transition towards sustainable diversified systems that would contribute to the Rural Renaissance objectives.

    EC funding : 9 999 985 €
    Duration : 5 years
    Start : June 1st 2017
    Coordinator : Antoine Messéan, antoine.messean@inra.fr
    Project manager : Adriana Voicu, adriana.voicu@inra.fr

    Website : http://www.diverimpacts.net/

  • DIVERSIFOOD Open or Close

    DIVERSI

    DIVERSIFOOD:

    Embedding Crop Diversity and Networking for Local High Quality Food Systems

      

    Objectives


    DIVERSIFOOD will evaluate and enrich the diversity of cultivated plants within diverse agroecosystems so as to increase their performance, resilience and quality through a multi-actor approach. By integrating existing experienced networks and using specific and relevant cases across Europe the project will strengthen “food culture” to improve economic viability of local chains resulting in a greater diversity of produce with a cultural identity.

    Thanks to the composition of its consortium, DIVERSIFOOD will cover the whole food chain from genetic resources to marketing, connecting and amplifying local existing actions. It will design specific concepts and methodologies for combining in situ experiments to ensure performance and quality. It will evaluate the genetic resources of a dozen underutilized and forgotten plant species for organic and low-input agriculture or marginal/specific conditions. Various combinations of underutilized legumes associated with several cereals will be tested.

    A new diversity will be generated by innovative breeding methods designed for more intra-crop variation. DIVERSIFOOD will help to facilitate cooperation between participatory research networks and professional breeders as well as policy makers in connecting formal and informal seed systems in Europe in relation to international negotiations on Farmers’ rights with the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Key-lessons based on the diverse experiences in the project will be shared to support on-farm seed production networks to guarantee high quality seed.

    DIVERSIFOOD will demonstrate the socio-economic value of on-farm seed systems, help at local and wider policy levels to increase food and environmental awareness, and improve multi-actor approaches to embed healthy and tasty local products in regional food chains. Demonstration and dissemination will take place at all stages, in collaboration with network organizations for a greater impact.

    EC funding : 3 429 908,75 €
    Duration : 4 years
    Start : March 1st 2015
    Coordinator : Véronique CHABLES - veronique.chables@inra.fr 
    Project manager : Marion Bondoux - marion.bondoux@inra.fr
    Website : http://www.diversifood.eu/

  • EPPN2020 Open or Close

    Logo EPPN 2020 pfade

    EPPN2020 is a research infrastructure project funded by Horizon 2020 Programme of the EU that will provide European public and private scientific sectors with access to a wide range of state-of-the-art plant phenotyping facilities, techniques and methods, and help boost the exploitation of genetic and genomic resources available for crop improvement that represents a major scientific challenge for this coming decade. EPPN2020 specifically aims to facilitate the community progressing across the whole phenotyping pipeline, involving sensors and imaging techniques, data analysis in relation to environmental conditions, data organization and storage, data interpretation in a biological context and meta-analyses of experiments carried out on different organs at different scales of plant organization.

    Specifically EPPN2020 includes:

    • Access to 31 key plant phenotyping installations
    • Joint research activities to develop: i) novel technologies and methods for environmental and plant measurments, ii) tools for statistical analysis and iii)  a European plant phenotyping information systems
    • Networking activities to increase integration between phenotyping facilities and users within and outside of EPPN2020

     

    EC funding : 9,999,999.50€ (Budget/total costs 10 220 249€)
    Duration : 4 years
    Start : 1st May 2017
    Coordinator : Dr François Tardieu francois.tardieu@inra.fr
    Project's manager : Bénédicte Ferreira benedicte.ferreira@inra.fr

    Website : https://eppn2020.plant-phenotyping.eu/

  • EUCLEG Open or Close

    EUCLEG : Breeding forage and grain legumes to increase EU’s and China’s protein self-sufficiency

     

    Objectives


    EUCLEG aims to reduce Europe and China’s dependency on protein imports by developing efficient breeding strategies for the legume crops of major economic importance in human food and animal feed. The objective is to improve diversification, crop productivity, yield stability and protein quality of both forage (alfalfa and red clover) and grain (pea, faba bean and soybean) legumes. Using diverse and extensive genetic resources and taking advantage of advanced molecular tools, EUCLEG aims to identify and develop the best genetic resources, phenotyping methods and molecular tools to breed legume varieties with improved performance under biotic and abiotic stresses in the representative European and Chinese agro-ecological areas. The potential for new uses of forage species for human nutrition will be explored. Searchable databases will be developed or built to host passport, agronomic and genetic data facilitating exchanges and use of genetic resources. The evaluation of genetic resources in multi-site trials will give keys to broaden the breeding material and extend agro-ecological adaptation. The genetic architecture of key breeding traits will be analysed using association studies in order to identify molecular markers related to phenotypic traits. Finally, genomic selection strategies will be assessed for their potential to improve genetic progress. Practical tools for genotyping, data management and calculation will be provided to breeders to implement marker-assisted selection and genomic selection leading to the creation of new varieties in the long-term. The partnership gathered in EUCLEG, combining public institutes and private companies of Europe and China, guaranties the transfer of knowledge from research to seed industry.

     

     

    EC funding : 5 000 000 €

    Duration  : 4 years

    Start : September 1st 2017

    Coordinator : Bernadette Julier - bernadette.julier@inra.fr

    Project manager : Elodie Tan - elodie.tan@inra.fr

  • EUCLID Open or Close

    logo Euclid

    EUCLID: EUCLID EU-CHINA Lever for IPM (Integrated Pest Management) Demonstration

      

    Objectives


    EUCLID is a four-year Research and Innovation Action funded by the European Commission under Horizon 2020.

    The overall objective is to secure food production for the increasing worldwide population while developing sustainable production methodologies to fight pests with an Integrated Pest Management approach (IPM), to be used in European and Chinese agriculture.

    EUCLID research activity aims at developing more sustainable pest management methods in Europe and China in order to reduce the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment, to reduce economic losses in agriculture, and to provide scientific support to EU and China policies.

    Tomatoes, leaf vegetables and grapes are the main crops of research, due to their economic relevance in the targeted markets; however, research outcomes will also have an impact on other crops. In addition, the project will consider the entire food product chain from agriculture to the final consumers.

    EC funding : 3M € (Budget 4 088 722,37€)
    Duration : 4 years
    Start : September 15 2015
    Coordinator : Nicolas Desneux - nicolas.desneux@inra.fr
    Project manager : Léa Tourneur - lea.tourneur@inra.fr
    Website : www.euclidipm.org/

  • FACCE ERA-NET PLUS Open or Close

    FACCE-ERANET

    FACCE ERA-NET PLUS:

    Climate Smart Agriculture

    Objectives


    Under the ERA-NET Plus action “Climate Smart Agriculture: Adaptation of agricultural systems in Europe” co-funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Commission, this call addresses adaptation of European agriculture to climate change in its broad sense. Four areas were highlighted as key to advancing research on genetics and breeding of animals and plants to increase resilience to climate change; pests and diseases of animals and plants linked to climate and posing significant risks; adaptive management of water and soil resources and options for adapting agricultural systems.

    Following pre-proposal submission with the deadline of Monday 2nd December 2013, an eligibility check ws carried out by the Steering Committee. Pre-proposals were also evaluated to assess their relevance to the scientific scope of this call, whether they match the objectives of FACCE-JPI and have a European Added Value. As a result, 40 coordinators were invited to submit a full proposal. Of the 39 received, 11 were selected for funding by the Steering Committee on July 1, 2014 following a positive evaluation by an international evaluation committee.

    The indicative total available budget amounts to 18,76 M€ from 22 national funding organisations from 18 countries, and the European Commission.

    Based on the outcomes of the peer review evaluation, 11 consortia have been recommended for funding :

    - Climate-CAFE : Climate Change Adaptability of cropping and Farming systems for Europe

    - CINDERELLA : Comparative analysis, INtegration anD ExemplaRy implEmentation of cLimate smart LAnd use practices on organic soils: Progressing paludicultures after centuries of peatland destruction and neglect

    - GENOMITE : New generation sustainable tools to control emerging mite pests under climate change

    - ClimBar : An integrated approach to evaluate and utilise genetic diversity for breeding climate-resilient barley

    - ClimGen : Climate Genomics for farm animal adaptation

    - CAOS : Climate-Smart Agriculture on Organic Soils

    - OptiBarn : Optimized animal-specific barn climatization facing temperature rise and increased climate variability

    - SYBRACLIM : Securing yield stability of Brassica crops in changing climate conditions

    - GreenRice : Sustainable and environmental friendly rice cultivation systems in Europe

    - GrassLandscape : Bridging landscape genomics and quantitative genetics for a regional adaptation of European grasslands to climate change

    - MODCARBOSTRESS : Improving models and plant phenotyping pipelines for a smart agriculture under abiotic stress combination and elevated CO2

    FACCE-ERA-NET Plus has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 618105.

    EC funding : 4M€
    Duration : 5 years
    Start : October 1st 2013
    Coordinator : Isabelle Albouy (INRA- Darese) - isabelle.albouy@inra.fr
    Project manager : Parisa Louise DARZI (INRA Transfert) - parisa-louise.darzi@inra.fr
    Website : https://www.faccejpi.com/Research-Themes-and-Achievements/Climate-Change-Adaptation

  • Feed a Gene Open or Close

    Feed a GeneFeed-a-Gene:Adapting the Feed, the Animal and the Feeding Techniques to Improve the Efficiency and Sustainability of Monogastric Livestock production systems 

    Objectives


    Feed-a-Gene aims to better adapt different components of monogastric livestock production systems (i.e., pigs, poultry and rabbits) to improve the overall efficiency and to reduce the environmental impact. This involves the development of new and alternative feed resources and feed technologies, the identification and selection of robust animals that are better adapted to fluctuating conditions, and the development of feeding techniques that allow optimizing the potential of the feed and the animal. 

    The project will:

    • Develop new and alternative feeds and feed technologies to make better use of local feed resources, green biomass and by-products of the food and biofuel industry.
    • Develop methods for the real-time characterization of the nutritional value of feeds to better use and adapt diets to animal requirements.
    • Develop new traits of feed efficiency and robustness allowing identification of individual variability to select animals that are more adapted to changes in feed and environmental conditions.
    • Develop biological models of livestock functioning to better understand and predict nutrient and energy utilization of animals along their productive trajectory.
    • Develop new management systems for precision feeding and precision farming combining data and knowledge from the feed, the animal, and the environment using innovative monitoring systems, feeders, and decision support tools.
    • Evaluate the overall sustainability of new management systems developed by the project.
    • Demonstrate the innovative technologies developed by the project in collaboration with partners from the feed industry, breeding companies, equipment manufacturers, and farmers’ organisations to promote the practical implementation of project results.
    • Disseminate new technologies that will increase animal production efficiency, whilst maintaining product quality and animal welfare and enhance EU food security to relevant stakeholders.

    EC funding : 9M € (Budget 9,9M €)
    Duration : 5 years
    Start : March 1st 2015
    Coordinator : Jaap van Milgen - jaap.vanmilgen@inra.fr
    Project manager : Vincent Troillard - vincent.troillard@inra.fr
    Website : www.feed-a-gene.eu

  • GenTORE Open or Close

    EF LogoGenTORE Jun17 RGB SThe objective of GenTORE is to develop innovative genome-enabled selection and management tools to optimise cattle resilience and efficiency (R&E) in widely varying environments. These tools, incorporating both genetic and non-genetic variables, will be applicable across the full range of systems (beef, milk and mixed), and will thereby increase the economic, environmental and social sustainability of European cattle meat and milk production systems.

    To achieve this, GenTORE brings together:

    1. multidisciplinary scientific expertise in genomics, environmental assessment, nutritional physiology, health management, precision livestock farming, mathematical modelling, and socio-economics;
    2. partners and stakeholders representing breeding organisations, farm technology companies, farm and veterinary advisory services, and farm sectors (organic, grazing, etc.);
    3. a unique data basis including >1 million genotypes.

    This multi-actor team will develop tools for:

    • multi-breed selection for R&E,
    • characterisation of diverse farm environments,
    • large-scale phenotyping of R&E using on-farm technology,
    • on-farm management of breeding and culling decisions,
    • and predicting the consequences for farm resilience of changing breeding and management.

    These tools are designed to be applicable under commercial conditions at the end of the project. They will allow increased use of the genomic diversity in cattle breeds, e.g. use of selective cross-breeding to best exploit the local production environment. They will also allow farm managers, their advisors, and policy-makers, to assess the relative importance of breeding for animal resilience vs breeding for efficiency, with respect to system resilience. As such GenTORE will not only enable the use of genomic information to facilitate predictive biology of efficiency- and resilience-related traits, but will also increase resilience of livestock production in the face of current and future challenges of climate change and food security.

     

    EC funding : 6 999 999,75 €

    Duration : 5 years

    Start : 1st june 2017

    Coordinator : Nicolas Friggens – nicolas.friggens@agroparistech.fr

    Project manager : Agathe Renard – agathe.renard@inra.fr

  • GenTree Open or Close

    Gentree logo  GenTree : Optimising the Management and Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic Resources in Europe

    Objectives


    The goal of GenTree is to provide the European forestry sector with better knowledge, methods and tools for optimising the management and sustainable use of forest genetic resources (FGR) in Europe in the context of climate change and continuously evolving demands for forest products and services.

    To reach its goal, GenTree will make scientific, technological and implementation breakthroughs in:

    • designing innovative strategies for dynamic conservation of FGR in European forests
    • broadening the range of FGR used by European breeding programmes
    • preparing new forest management scenarios and policy frameworks fully integrating genetic conservation and breeding aspects, to adapt forests and forestry to changing environmental conditions and societal demands.

    GenTree focuses on economically and ecologically important tree species in Europe, growing in a wide range of habitats and covering different societal uses and values.

    EC funding : 6,7M € (Budget 8M €)

    Duration : 4 years
    Start : March 1st 2016
    Coordinator : Bruno FADY - bruno.fady@inra.fr
    Project manager : Yohan LECUONA – yohan.lecuona@inra.fr

    Websitehttp://www.gentree-h2020.eu/

  • IMAGE Open or Close

    IMAGE logo RVBIMAGE: Innovative Management of Animal Genetic Resources

    Objectives


    IMAGE aims at enhancing the use of genetic collections and upgrading animal gene bank management. IMAGE will further develop genomic methodologies, biotechnologies and bioinformatics for a better knowledge and exploitation of animal genetic resources.

    The ultimate goal of the project is to demonstrate the benefits brought by gene banks to the development of more sustainable livestock farming systems. The main approaches of IMAGE were presented:

    • Involving the stakeholders from the beginning: a first meeting will take place at the opening of the 67th annual meeting of the European Association of Animal Production (EAAP) in Belfast, Northern Ireland, on 28 August 2016; different types of stakeholders are relevant for IMAGE and targeted meetings may be needed on a case by case basis;
    • Improving the reproductive quality of the gene bank samples and their ‘usability’ in the field, with the development of new protocols and the perspective to assess the potential of new technologies to improve the cost-efficiency of using gene bank samples;
    • Improving the connection between gene bank managers and supporting the set-up of the European Gene Bank Network for Animal Genetic Resources (EUGENA) in connection with the European Regional Focal Point;
    • Assessing the potential of genetic diversity present in genetic collections by genomics and data integration;
    • Facilitating access to information and resources by developing a new model for data integration in a web portal, and registering collections into the BioSamples database of EMBL-EBI;
    • Developing, testing and demonstrating strategies and scenarios to facilitate the use of this diversity and to enhance synergy between gene banks and on-farm management of genetic resources; and
    • Increasing awareness about the value of gene banks by a multi-faceted dissemination programme, including decision support tools for breeds and North-South workshops for capacity building.

    EC Funding : 7M € (budget 9.013.156€)
    Duration : 4 years
    Start : March 1st 2016
    Coordinator : Michele Tixier Boichard - michele.boichard@inra.fr
    Project Manager : Irina Carpusca - irina.carpusca@inra.fr
    Website : www.imageh2020.eu

  • INNOVINE Open or Close

    innovine

    INNOVINE:

    Combining innovation in vineyard management and genetic for a sustainable European Viticulture

    Objectives


    The wine industry is a major economic sector through the European Union where wine production represented in 2010/2011 about 60% of the whole amount elaborated on the planet. Nowadays, European wine producers must face several key issues and challenges. Within few years, climate change will affect the balance between the area of production and grape varieties and will change the impact of pests and diseases in vineyards. Winegrowers will have to respect the environment while competing with other new producing countries on a more and more globalized market.

    In this context, the strategic goal of the InnoVine project is to support the European wine industry by matching consumers’ demands for top quality wines and food safety, citizen’s requests for eco-friendly production methods and winegrowers technical needs in a climate change background. 

    EC funding : 5 999 990 € (Budget 8 489 664 €)
    Duration : 4 years
    Start : January 1st 2013
    Coordinator : Anne-Françoise ADAM-BLONDON (INRA Versailles) - anne-francoise.adam-blondon@inra.fr
    Project manager : Elodie Tan (INRA Transfert) - elodie.tan@inra.fr
    Website : www.innovine.eu

  • Legato Open or Close

    legatoLEGATO:

    LEGumes for Agriculture of TOmorrow

    Objectives


    The project has been conceived to promote the culture of grain legumes in Europe by identifying priority issues currently limiting grain legume cultivation and devising solutions in term of novel varietal development, culture practices, and food uses. LEGATO will develop tools and resources to enable state of the art breeding methodology and to exploit fully the breadth of genetic resources available.

    The overall aim of LEGATO is to contribute to the increased sustainable reintroduction of grain legumes in European cropping systems. Working on the major European grain legumes, pea, faba bean, and with specific objectives on white lupin and grass pea, the project will focus on the identification and testing of novel legume breeding lines possessing valuable characters such as disease and pest resistance and quality for human consumption.

    EC funding : 4 999 000 € (Budget  6 882 280.20 €)
    Duration : 4 ans
    Start : January 1st 2014
    Coordinator : Richard Thompson (INRA Dijon) - richard.thompson@dijon.inra.fr
    Project manager : Léa Tourneur - lea.tourneur@inra.fr 
    Website : www.legato-fp7.eu

  • LEGVALUE Open or Close

    legvalue highresLEGVALUE : To develop sustainable legume-based farming systems and agri-feed and food chains in the EU

    Objectives


    The goal of LEGVALUE is to pave the road to develop sustainable and competitive legume-based farming systems and agrifeed and food chains in the EU. To this end, the project will assess both the economic and environmental benefits for the EU agro industry to widely produce and use legumes in a sustainable manner. Using a list of 20 value chains reflecting the market diversity, and a list of 20 farm networks covering the diversity of grain legumes and fodder legumes species, LEGVALUE will demonstrate the added value of various legumes value chains and will provide a range of solutions to improve the economic interest of each actor involved in the value chains to use legumes. The feature of LEGVALUE is an approach to research that takes stakeholder-driven objectives. The gap between research and practice will be overcome with close collaboration between non-academic actors and scientists. LEGVALUE will result in the first decision tool for farmers to choose the optimal legume species with their adapted crop management and to assess the economic and environmental benefits of legumes in the cropping and grassland systems. LEGVALUE will contribute to identifying the supply chains that are the most competitive to foster legumes crops so helping the EU to identify: i) the technological topics that must be supported in priority to enhance legumes development; ii) insights into how to support actors coordination for better added value sharing iii) the new standards that will help trade and process of legumes. LEGVALUE will provide accurate recommendations for the development of legumes in the EU. By removing current market opacity and the design of transition pathways, LEGVALUE will provide scientific support for EU and national policy-makers directed at increasing legume production, support technological innovation and organisational innovation in supply chains, meeting the EU Parliament 2011 motion on increasing self-sufficiency on protein rich plant materials.

     

    EC funding : 5 000 000€

    Duration : 4 years

    Start : June 1st 2017

    Coordinator : Frederic Muel - f.muel@terresinovia.fr

    Project manager : Oriana Rossi - oriana.rossi@inra.fr

  • MODEXTREME Open or Close

    MODEXTERME weblogoMODEXTREME: MODelling vegetation response to EXTREMe Events

    Objectives


    The continuous supply of services provided by agricultural systems is increasingly threatened by climate change in association with an estimated increase in the frequency of extreme weather events such as droughts, heat waves or heavy precipitation events. MODEXTREME has the overarching goal to help the European and non-European agriculture face extreme climatic events by improving the capability of biophysical models simulating vegetation responses to integrate climatic variability and extremes.

    To reach this goal, the project will achieve the following objectives:

    • Scientific objectives:
      • Identify and integrate into simulation models, the responses of main crop and grassland systems to environmental conditions associated with extreme climatic events;
      • Improve yield monitoring and forecasting systems via multiple observational constraints to be assimilated into process-based models across different climate conditions;
      • Estimate possible trajectories of agricultural productivity in the short (during current season) to medium time horizons and associated uncertainties. This involves taking into account the genetic progress and its effects on responses to extreme environmental conditions.
    • Technological objectives:
      • Build a consistent, multi-domain data repository for use in studying climate variability and extreme events relevant for agricultural production;
      • Develop generically reusable software units that implement libraries of models. This will allow
        (i) extending the vegetation response, as implemented in existing modelling solutions, to weather extremes,
        (ii) extending the multi-model platform for plant growth and development simulations of the European Commission Joint Research Centre (MARS: Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS);
      • Prototype alternate versions of the workflows for agricultural production monitoring and scenario analysis both using new modelling solutions composed in the project, and by focusing on extreme events

    EC funding : 2 M€ (Budget 2.64 M€)

    Duration : 3 ans
    Start : November 1st 2013
    Coordinator : Gianni BELLOCCHI (INRA Clermont - UREP) - gianni.bellocchi@inra.fr
    Project manager : Léa Tourneur (INRA Transfert) - lea.tourneur@inra.fr
    Website : www.modextreme.org

  • NoAW Open or Close

    noawNoAW: No Agro-Waste

    Objectives


    Driven by a near zero-waste society requirement, the goal of NoAW project is to generate innovative efficient approaches to convert growing agricultural waste issues into eco-efficient bio-based products opportunities with direct benefits for both environment, economy and EU consumer.

    To achieve this goal, the NoAW concept relies on developing holistic life cycle thinking able to support environmentally responsible R&D innovations on agro-waste conversion at different TRLs, in the light of regional and seasonal specificities, not forgetting risks emerging from circular management of agro-wastes (e.g. contaminants accumulation).

    By involving all agriculture chain stakeholders in a territorial perspective, the project will:

    1. develop innovative eco-design and hybrid assessment tools of circular agro-waste management strategies and address related gap of knowledge and data via extensive exchange through the Knowledge exchange Stakeholders Platform,
    2. develop breakthrough knowledge on agro-waste molecular complexity and heterogeneity in order to upgrade the most widespread mature conversion technology (anaerobic digestion) and to synergistically eco-design robust cascading processes to fully convert agro-waste into a set of high added value bio-energy, bio-fertilizers and bio-chemicals and building blocks, able to substitute a significant range of non-renewable equivalents, with favourable air, water and soil impacts,
    3. get insights of the complexity of potentially new, cross-sectors, business clusters in order to fast track NoAW strategies toward the field and develop new business concepts and stakeholders platform for cross-chain valorisation of agro-waste on a territorial and seasonal basis.

    EC funding : 7M € (Budget 7 816 232,50 €)
    Duration : 4 years
    Start : October 1st 2016
    Coordinator : Nathalie GONTARD - nathalie.gontard@inra.fr
    Project manager : Parisa Louise DARZI - parisa-louise.darzi@inra.fr

  • OPTIFEL Open or Close

    optifel

    OPTIFEL:

    Food for elderly

    Objectives


    Part of population aged 65 or older in the EU-27 are set to rise from 17% in 2010 to 30% in 2060. One in eight people will be aged 80 or older in 2060. (Source: Eurostat).

    Nutrition plays an important role in the life of senior citizens: the act of eating remains a moment of enjoyment that contributes to general wellness, may contribute to the social bond and must also meet specific nutritional needs of this age group.

    Developing innovative food and services tailored to elderly populations is a new challenge for key players involved in food industry and catering!

    Coordinated by the National Institute of Agronomic Research (INRA), the European OPTIFEL project “Optimised Food Products for Elderly Populations” aims to develop innovative products based on vegetables and fruits for elderly populations to increase length of independence.

    The population targeted by the project is elderly cooking at home or making use of meal-on-wheels services for whom the project will conceive food products adapted to their taste, habits, needs and constraints. OPTIFEL will test the approach on fruit and vegetable products, which traditionally constitute a high part of elderly diet, offer great variety, and are amenable to texture manipulation. In addition, emerging literature has associated higher intake of vegetables and fruits to improved health outcomes, including disability and chronic diseases. Other factors such as food safety, adapted packaging and environmental costs assessment will be investigated.

    EC funding : 2 999 409 € (Budget 4 449 172 €)
    Duration : 3.5 years
    Start : September 1st 2013
    Coordinator : Catherine RENARD (INRA Avignon) - catherine.renard@inra.fr
    Project manager : Agathe Renard - agathe.renard@inra.fr
    Website : www.optifel.eu

  • ParaFishControl Open or Close

    ParaFishControl logo 

    ParaFishControl:

    Advanced Tools and Research Strategies for Parasite Control in European Farmed Fish

    Objectives


    ParaFishControl is a European Union funded project under the Horizon 2020 programme. The overarching goal of ParaFishControl is to increase the sustainability and competitiveness of the European aquaculture industry. The 29 partner strong consortium will achieve this by improving our understanding of fish-parasite interactions and by developing innovative solutions and tools for the prevention, control and mitigation of the most harmful parasitic species affecting the main European farmed fish species.

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector worldwide, currently providing half of all aquatic animals for human consumption. If responsibly developed and practised, aquaculture can generate lasting benefits for global food security and economic growth. Parasites and related infections can cause significant damage to farmed fish resulting in poor growth performance, impaired welfare and high mortality rates, which can significantly hamper aquaculture production and economic performance. Disease prevention and management are therefore essential for the sustainability of the aquaculture industry.

    The concept of ParaFishControl is to strengthen the applied knowledge base for parasites of European farmed fish, bridging the gap between fundamental knowledge of parasite biology, host-parasite interactions and the development of practical applications for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the principal parasitic diseases, as well as characterising transfer of parasites between wild and farmed fish populations.

    Activities in ParaFishControl will be carried out over five years in working groups arranged into nine work packages which are cross-cutting and integrate all fish host species and their relevant parasites.

    ParaFishControl will carry out a dynamic programme to ensure dissemination of the research findings to a variety of stakeholders such as scientists working in academia or industry, fish farmers/growers, fish health professionals, agricultural advisors, breeders, consumers and policy makers as well as the public.

    EC funding : 7,8M € (Budget 8 063 877,50 €)
    Duration : 5 years
    Start : April 1st 2015
    Coordinator : Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla - parafishcontrol.coordination@csic.es
    Project manager : Enric Belles-Boix – enric.belles-boix@paris.inra.fr
    Website : www.parafishcontrol.eu

  • PROLIFIC Open or Close

    prolific

    PROLIFIC: Pluridisciplinary study for a RObust and sustainabLe Improvement of Fertility In Cows

    Objectives


    Intensive genetic selection in dairy cattle has resulted in a modern cows with very high milk yield but reduced fertility and poor calving performance. The sustainability of dairy cattle farming systems relies in large part on the ability of cows to maintain reproductive performance as they cope with the constraints imposed by environmental conditions and livestock practices. The strategic aim of this project is to unlock the potential for proactive herd management by providing the farmer with improved tools for on-farm reproductive monitoring and management. This will be achieved by a pluridisciplinary approach to eliminate the key scientific/methodological blockages and develop innovative solutions for a robust and sustainable improvement of fertility in cows. The project is structured in four R&D workpackages, one demonstration, one outreach and one management WP.

    The project will:

    1) develop models to support on farm decision at different levels: animal fertility, herd management, and socio-economic impact for the farm and the farmer

    2) identify genes and pathways involved in the adaptation of the reproductive function to different environmental conditions, especially low input feeding systems

    3) identify the functional quantitative trait nucleotides for days till first luteal activity (based on progesterone measures) and estimate genomic breeding values using whole sequence information on individuals

    4) study the adaptative response of animals to different feeding systems and management strategies

    5) demonstrate the applicability of the knowledge and toolsproduced in the PROLIFIC project at the farm level

    6) disseminate the knowledge produced in the project to the relevant stakeholders. PROLIFIC is a pluridisciplinary project taking advantage of the skills and expertise (modelling, molecular biology, genomics, phenotypic recording and statistics) of partners from all Europe. Seven research organizations, one industry and four SMEs are involved in the project.

    EC funding : 3M€ (Budget 6M€)
    Duration : 4 years
    Start : February 1st 2013
    Coordinator : Joëlle DUPONT (Tours) - Joelle.Dupont@tours.inra.fr
    Project manager : Elodie TAN - Elodie.Tan@paris.inra.fr
    Website : www.euprolific.eu/

  • ReMIX Open or Close

    Logo.ReMIXReMIX : Redesigning European cropping systems based on species MIXtures

     

    Objectives


    ReMIX will exploit the benefits of species mixtures to design more diversified and resilient agro-ecological arable cropping systems less dependent on external inputs. Based on a multi-actor approach, ReMIX will produce new knowledge that is both scientifically credible and socially valuable in conventional and organic agriculture. It will tackle practical questions and co-design ready-to-use practical solutions adapted to producing mainly grain cash crops in diverse EU pedo-climatic conditions. ReMIX will: 1) overcome barriers to stimulate the adoption of species mixtures by farmers and in agri-food chains, 2) unravel mechanisms of plant-plant interactions to maximise resource use efficiency, 3) determine the role of species mixtures in controlling diseases, pests and weeds and alleviating yield damages, 4) demonstrate the role of species mixtures in improving ecosystem service provision and development of resilience to biotic stress, 5) identify key traits and create novel breeding and phenotyping methods and tools adapted to species mixtures, 6) generate novel breeding material adapted to grain legume/cereal mixtures, 7) develop generic rules for assembling species for efficient cash crop production using process-based simulation models, 8) develop new management techniques to optimise species mixtures performance, 9) optimise settings and specifications for agricultural machines for harvesting and separating grains, and 10) develop a tool box, an educational serious game and technical booklets for farmers and advisors. The project will span from the specification of end-user needs and the co-design of in-field and on-farm experiments to demonstrations with evaluation of new varieties and practices. ReMIX will contribute to the adoption of productive and resilient agricultural systems based on plants diversity, to increase legume production and competitiveness in EU and to healthier diets based on plant proteins from cereals and legumes.

     

    EC funding : 5M€

    Duration : 4 years

    Start : May 1st 2017

    Coordinator : Eric Justes - eric.justes@inra.fr

    Project manager : Elodie Tan - elodie.tan@inra.fr

    Website : www.remix-intercrops.eu

  • SAPHIR Open or Close

    saphirlogoSAPHIR: Strengthening Animal Production and Health ​​through the Immune Response

     

    Objectives


    The European research project SAPHIR aims to develop innovative, safe, affordable and effective vaccine strategies effective against endemic pathogens responsible for high economic losses in livestock. 

    By generating vaccine strategies for these pathogens in pigs, poultry and ruminants, SAPHIR will aid in strengthening the profitability of food animal systems, improve animal welfare and reduce xenobiotic usage in farming with a ‘One Health’ perspective​.

    ​SAPHIR brings together interdisciplinary expertise from fourteen academic institutes including a Chinese partner, five SMEs, one pharmaceutical companies and a forum of animal breeders.

    EC funding : 9M €  (Budget 10.7M €)
    Duration : 4 years
    Start : March 1st 2015
    Coordinator : Isabelle Schwartz-Cornil - isabelle.schwartz@inra.fr
    Project manager : Pamela Lucas - pamela.lucas@inra.fr
    Website : http://www.h2020-saphir.eu/
  • SolACE Open or Close

    SolACE Logo RGBSolACE : Solutions for improving Agroecosystem and Crop Efficiency for water and nutrient use

     

    Objectives


     

    SolACE's overarching goal is to help European agriculture facing the challenge to deal with more frequent combined limitations of water and nutrients in the coming decades, through the design of novel crop genotypes and agroecosystem management innovations to improve water and nutrient (i.e. N and P) use efficiency. To achieve this goal, SolACE will focus its activities on three major European crops - potato, bread and durum wheat - and will identify the (i) optimum combinations of above- and below-ground traits for improving resource use efficiency, (ii) best-performing genotypes under combined water and N or P stresses and (iii) novel practices that make better use of plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions to access water, N and P resources in conventional, organic and conservation agriculture. SolACE will implement a double interactive innovation loop, based on agroecosystem management and breeding strategies, and will imply the engagement of diverse end-users, across the production chain, from farmers and farm advisors to NGOs, SMEs and larger industries in the agri-business sector, through the SolACE consortium and a range of stakeholders' events. The tested innovations will include crop genotype mixtures, legume-based crop rotations and cover crops, microbial inoculants, as well as improved decision support systems and hybrids or products from genomic selection and participatory evolutionary breeding schemes. SolACE will implement complementary approaches, from data mining, modelling, phenotyping in high throughput platforms and field conditions, to experiments in research stations and farmers' networks in contrasted pedo-climatic zones. Through the co-design and co-assessment with the end-users of the selected novel breeding and management strategies to increase the overall system resource use efficiency, the findings of SolACE will be deemed acceptable and readily available for dissemination to a broad spectrum of stakeholders, including policy-makers.

     

    EC funding : 6 000 000 €

    Duration : 5 years

    Start : May 1st 2017

    Coordinator : Philippe Hinsinger - philippe.hinsinger@inra.fr

    Project manager : Adriana Voicu - adriana.voicu@inra.fr

    Website : http://www.solace-eu.net/

  • VetBioNet Open or Close

    1VetBioNet : Veterinary Biocontained facility Network for excellence in animal infectiology research and experimentation

    Objectives


    The VetBioNet (Veterinary Biocontained research facility Network) project involves the contribution of two INRA research units and three INRA platforms1 and constitutes an international network of 30 partners from the academic and private sector. The project’s principal objectives are to reinforce the cooperation between Europe’s leading high-containment research infrastructures, to provide access to the high-end research facilities of the network, and to further improve the technical standard of the services provided.
    VetBioNet is funded by the EC Horizon 2020 INFRAIA program allocating 10 Mio € for a project duration of 5 years (2017-21). This EC funding instrument specifically supports advanced infrastructure communities. The VetBioNet network has attained an advanced degree of cooperation through the implementation of the previous infrastructure project NADIR (Network for Animal Diseases and Infectiology Research, 2009-2013)2 which has already assembled 12 of the present consortium members.

    The integrating activities of the VetBioNet infrastructure project are threefold:
    - Joint Research Activities (JRAs) of the project partners related to animal infectious diseases and their prevention and control
    - Networking Activities (NAs) to foster the cooperation between project partners and to forge cooperative relationships with other European or international research initiatives, industrial stakeholders, international organizations and policy makers.
    - Transnational Access Activities (TNAs) – that is to say, providing access to the high-containment facilities and technical resources of the consortium. This free-of-charge access will be provided to researchers or enterprises proposing a sound project related to specific epizootic and zoonotic diseases.

     

    EC funding : 10 000 000 €

    Duration : 5 years

    Start : 1st March 2017

    Coordinators : Frédéric Lantier - frederic.lantier@inra.fr and Sascha Trapp, sascha.trapp@inra.fr

    Project manager : Oriana Rossi - oriana.rossi@inra.fr

    Website : www.vetbionet.eu/

  • WatBio Open or Close

    watbio

    WatBio:

     Improved biomass crops suitable for growing on drought-stressed marginal lands

    Objectives


    WATBIO is about finding and putting into practice science-based solutions to address one of modern agriculture’s great challenges: delivering non-food biomass without competing with food production while protecting already stretched water resources.  We need perennial crops that tolerate drought to efficiently produce biomass on land un-suited to food production.  

    The goal of WATBIO is to use the power of next generation sequencing to accelerate the breeding of non-food biomass crops for drought-stressed conditions while maintaining biomass productivity and quality in water-scarce environments unsuited for food crops.  WATBIO focuses on the improvement of poplar, miscanthus and arundo which are perennial non-food crops that have high biomass yield.  For poplar and miscanthus the research will produce new germplasm with increased drought tolerance.  For arundo, its genetic diversity will be assessed and increased, and breeding tools will be developed.

    Twenty-two partners (15 academic institutions and 7 private sector) who span the crop improvement chain will:

    1. identify  key traits for the maintenance of high quality biomass production in water-scarce environments;
    2. link these traits through modelling to underlying key genes, proteins and metabolite networks;
    3. utilise a wide range of measurements on plants for screening at multiple sites to test genotype x environment interactions;
    4. use sequence-based gene expression data and to identify 40 genes related to drought tolerance for testing proof of concept using GM approaches; and
    5. use sequence-based data for genome wide association and genomic approaches, linking physiology to traits of high heritability and to underlying genes.

    EC funding : 8 999 997 € (Budget 11 658 901 €)
    Duration : 5 years
    Start : November 1st 2012
    Coordinator : Gail TAYLOR (University of Southampton, Grande Bretagne) - G.Taylor@soton.ac.uk
    Project manager : Lian LOMAX-HASMTER - llomax-hamster@inra.fr
    Website : www.watbio.eu

  • WHEALBI Open or Close

    whealbi

    WHEALBI: 

    WHEAt and barley Legacy for Breeding Improvement

    Objectives


    The Whealbi project, started beginning of 2014, stems from the strong conviction that to improve wheat and barley production in order to face severe global changes, we need to better exploit knowledge from basic science to develop new varieties and innovative cropping systems.

    WHEALBI will combine genomics, genetics and agronomy to improve European wheat and barley production in competitive and sustainable cropping systems. It will generate original data from expressed genome sequences of 1000 wheat and barley genetic resources and provide models and tools to integrate these data in breeding programmes and crop management.

    The results will be disseminated to a broad user community, highlighting the benefits and issues associated with the adoption of what is considered sustainable and environmentally friendly wheat and barley crop production in a European context.

    WHEALBI will thus aim to help the EU remain a major actor in world small grain cereal production while addressing the pressing global priorities of increasing and stabilising primary production, improving food quality and safety, and reducing environmental impact.


    EC funding : 5M €  (Budget 6.9M €)
    Duration : 5 years
    Start : January 1st 2014
    Coordinator : Gilles Charmet - gilles.charmet@inra.fr
    Project manager : Ronan Pendu - ronan.pendu[at]inra.fr
    Website : http://www.whealbi.eu/

  • ZELCOR Open or Close

    ZELCORlogoZELCOR:

    Zero Waste Ligno-Cellulosic Bio-Refineries

      

    Objectives


    Zelcor project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of transforming lignocellulose biorefinery recalcitrant side streams into high added-value biobased products, including fine chemicals. Its concept is to combine chemical and enzymatic catalysis with insects-based biological conversion, within a biorefinery integrated approach. The project is conceived to avoid waste production by recycling waste bio-based products and improve the sustainability of existing second generation biorefineries. It addresses three types of recalcitrant raw materials: lignocellulosic residues from ethanol production, lignins dissolved during pulping process and lignin-like humins formed by sugars conversion. Enzymatic and process engineering will be implemented to design efficient conversion routes and permit technological breakthroughs. A transversal platform for the characterisation of biomolecules will be settled to identify bio-products of commercial interest among lignins and humins multifunctional nanoparticles, phenolic antioxidants, insects-based chitosans and aromatic chemical intermediates. Thanks to this platform, Zelcor will enhance knowledge of the structure-function relationships and the mechanisms involved in recalcitrant raw materials catalytic depolymerisation and bioconversion. Demonstration of the approach feasibility will be performed by process scaling-up, formulation of end-product prototypes and value chain sustainability and safety assessment. The presence of industrial partners all along the value chains, from lignocellulosic feedstock to end products, will facilitate demonstration activities and technological transfers. With this strong industry drive, Zelcor will lead to large scale production of biomolecules for cosmetics, packaging and chemical industry, as well as novel biocatalysts.

    EC funding : 5 256 994 euros (Budget : 6,7M €)
    Duration : 4 years
    Start : October 1st 2016
    Coordinator : Stéphanie BAUMBERGER - stephanie.baumberger@inra.fr
    Project manager : Marion BONDOUX – marion.bondoux@inra.fr